Virginia Compared to Other States

Sources & notes

1 – Population (2020)
U.S. Census Bureau, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population.
Population estimates are based on the 2010 census, updated with annual data. Data from the 2020 Census is not yet available.

2 – Percentage change in population (2010–2020)
U.S. Census Bureau, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population.
Population estimates are based on the 2010 census, updated with annual data. Data from the 2020 Census is not yet available.

3 – Per capita personal income (2019)
U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis — Interactive data.
Personal income is income from net earnings, property, and transfer payments such as Social Security and unemployment benefits. Personal income includes contributions to government social insurance and excludes the deduction of personal taxes.

4 – Per capita gross DOMESTIC product (2019)
U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis — Interactive data.
Gross domestic product is the sum of all value added by industries within a state.

5 – Annual unemployment rate (2019)
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Unemployment Rates for States, Annual Averages.
The unemployment rate is the percentage of people 16 years or older who did not have a job but were available for and have looked for work in the past four weeks.

6 – Percentage of population living in poverty in past 12 months (2019)
U.S. Census Bureau, Poverty Status in the Past 12 Months, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates.
Thresholds are updated annually for changes in the cost of living and do not vary across the U.S.

7 – Per capita state revenue (FY18)
U.S. Census Bureau, State and Local Government Finances by Level of Government and by State; Annual Estimates of the Resident Population.

8 – Per capita local revenue (FY18)
U.S. Census Bureau, State and Local Government Finances by Level of Government and by State; Annual Estimates of the Resident Population.

9 – State & local revenue as percentage of personal income (FY18)
U.S. Census Bureau, State and Local Government Finances by Level of Government and by State; U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis — Interactive data.

10 – Percentage of total state & local tax revenue from individual income tax (FY18)
U.S. Census Bureau, State and Local Government Finances by Level of Government and by State; Annual Estimates of the Resident Population.

11 – Per capita state taxes (FY18)
U.S. Census Bureau, State and Local Government Finances by Level of Government and by State; Annual Estimates of the Resident Population.

12 – Per capita local taxes (FY18)
U.S. Census Bureau, State and Local Government Finances by Level of Government and by State; Annual Estimates of the Resident Population.

13 – Per capita state & local taxes (FY18)
U.S. Census Bureau, State and Local Government Finances by Level of Government and by State; Annual Estimates of the Resident Population.

14 – State & local taxes as percentage of personal income (FY18)
U.S. Census Bureau, State and Local Government Finances by Level of Government and by State; U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis — Interactive data.

15 – Per capita federal grants (Federal FY19)
USAspending.gov; U.S. Census Bureau, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population.
Federal grants are an award of financial assistance from a federal agency to a recipient to carry out a public project or service authorized by a United States law. Most grants are awarded to state and local governments. Includes block grants, formula grants, project grants, and cooperative agreements.

16 – Per capita federal expenditures (Federal FY19)
USAspending.gov; U.S. Census Bureau, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population.
USAspending.gov data is complete for federal grants and contracts but not for the retirement benefits, non-retirement benefits, and salaries for federal employees. Therefore, data presented here does not include all federal spending in a state.

17 – Per capita state expenditures (FY19)
National Association of State Budget Officers, State Expenditure Report; U.S. Census Bureau, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population.

18 – Percentage change in per capita state expenditures (FY10–FY19)
National Association of State Budget Officers, State Expenditure Report; U.S. Census Bureau, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population; U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, CPI Supplemental Files.

19 – Per capita general fund expenditures (FY19)
National Association of State Budget Officers, State Expenditure Report; U.S. Census Bureau, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population.
The general fund, the predominant fund for financing state operations, receives revenues from broad-based state taxes. Specific functions are financed differently among states.

20 – Per capita state & local debt outstanding (FY18)
U.S. Census Bureau, State and Local Government Finances by Level of Government and by State; Annual Estimates of the Resident Population.

21 – Bond ratings (December 2020)
Virginia Department of Treasury, State General Obligation Bond Ratings.
States are ranked based on the average value of their bond ratings on a 10-point scale, with AAA rating equal to 10 points. For states with no general obligation debt, shown are the rates they would likely receive if they issued general obligation debt.

22 – Per capita Medicaid expenditures (Federal FY19)
Kaiser Family Foundation, State Health Facts: Total Medicaid Spending; U.S. Census Bureau, Annual Estimates of the Resident Population.
Federal FY19 figures include expenditures for Medicaid expansion, but do not
include administrative costs or accounting adjustments.

23 – Percentage of total state expenditures for public assistance (FY18)
U.S. Census Bureau, State and Local Government Finances by Level of Government and by State; Annual Estimates of the Resident Population.

24 – Percentage of population under age 65 with health insurance (2019)
U.S. Census Bureau, Health Insurance Coverage in the United States.
Health insurance is classified by the U.S. Census Bureau as insurance provided through an employer or a union, or purchased by an individual from a private company or government coverage. This includes Medicare, Medicaid, military health care, the Children’s Health Insurance Program, and individual state health plans.

25 – Infant mortality rate (2018)
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System, Linked Birth / Infant Death Records.
Infant mortality rate is the number of infant deaths before age one per 1,000 live births.

26 – State & local per pupil funding, pre-K through 12 (2017–18)
U.S. Census Bureau, Census of Governments: Public School Finances, Public Elementary-Secondary Education Finance Data.
Excludes revenue from and payments to other school systems. Excludes expenditures for adult education, community services, and other non-elementary and secondary programs. Includes the finances of charter schools whose charters are held directly by a government or a government agency.

27 – State per pupil funding pre-K through 12 (2017–18)
U.S. Census Bureau, Census of Governments: Public School Finances, Public Elementary-Secondary Education Finance Data.
Excludes revenue from and payments to other school systems. Excludes expenditures for adult education, community services, and other non-elementary and secondary programs. Includes the finances of charter schools whose charters are held directly by a government or a government agency.

28 – Average salary for K–12 teachers in public schools (2018–19)
National Education Association, Ranking & Estimates: Rankings of the States and Estimates of School Statistics.
Nationwide average includes District of Columbia. Student-teacher ratio is the number of students in the fall enrollment divided by the number of classroom teachers.

29 – Percentage of adults age 25+ with at least a high school education (2019)
U.S. Census Bureau, Educational Attainment, American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates; Virginia Department of Education, State-Level Cohort Report.
Includes GEDs and equivalent. On-time high school graduation rate is the percentage of students in a cohort who earned a diploma within four years of entering high school for the first time.

30 – Average annual in-state tuition & fees at public 4-year institutions (2020–21)
College Board, Trends in College Pricing; State Council of Higher Education for
Virginia, Tuition and Fees at Virginia’s State Supported Colleges and Universities.
Tuition and fees shown are enrollment-weighted averages, meaning tuitions reported by colleges with more FTE students are weighted more heavily than those of institutions with fewer FTE students. Excludes room and board.

31 – Percentage change to in-state tuition & fees at public 4-year institutions (2015–16 to 2020–21)
College Board, Trends in College Pricing; State Council of Higher Education for
Virginia, Tuition and Fees at Virginia’s State Supported Colleges and Universities.
College Board uses the Consumer Price Index, All Urban Consumers to adjust for inflation. Disposable income, as defined by SCHEV, is income available to individuals for spending and saving.

32 – Higher education appropriations per FTE student (FY19)
State Higher Education Executive Officers Association, State Higher Education
Finance Report.
Includes appropriations for state-supported community colleges, 2-year colleges, and public undergraduate and graduate programs. Education appropriations include state and local support for public higher education operating expenses, including Recovery Act funds, and exclude appropriations for independent institutions, financial aid for students attending independent institutions, research, hospitals, and medical education. Full-time equivalent (FTE) enrollment equates student credit hours to full-time academic year students and excludes medical students.

33 – State motor fuels tax (2020)
American Petroleum Institute, State Motor Fuel Reports; Virginia Department of
Motor Vehicles, Fuels Tax Rates.
State motor fuel taxes shown in this comparison represent a statewide weighted average for those states where taxes vary across jurisdictions. State motor fuel tax includes state excise tax and other state taxes and fees. In Virginia, this includes a 0.6› per gallon petroleum storage tank fee. Motor fuel tax applies to unleaded gasoline.

34 – Per capita state & local road expenditures (FY18)
U.S. Census Bureau, State and Local Government Finances by Level of Government and by State; Annual Estimates of the Resident Population; U.S. Federal Highway Administration: Highway Statistics.
Road expenditures include maintenance, operation, repair, and construction of highways, streets, and roads; and capital expenditure for purchase or construction.

35 – Per capita state public safety expenditures (FY18)
U.S. Census Bureau, State and Local Government Finances by Level of Government and by State; Annual Estimates of the Resident Population.
Public safety includes police protection, corrections, and protective inspection and regulation.

36 – State government FTEs per 100 persons (2019)
U.S. Census Bureau, Census of Governments: Employment; Annual Estimates of the Resident Population; Virginia Department of Human Resource Management, Full-Time Equivalent Report.
The full-time equivalent (FTE) calculation incorporates the hours of both full- and part-time employees; total part-time hours are apportioned as though they had been worked by full-time employees. The Census Bureau’s methodology for calculating FTE was modified in 2019 and is now based on historical data from the prior 5-year period.